Volume XVI: American

Edited by W. P. Trent, J. Erskine, S. P. Sherman & C. Van Doren

Chapter X. Thoreau
  By ARCHIBALD MACMECHAN, Ph.D., F.R.S.C., George Munro Professor of the English Language and Literature in Dalhousie University
  1. The Village Rebel
  2. Thoreau’s Youth and Education
  3. His Reading
  4. Emerson
  5. Rebellions: Church; State; Society
  6. The Experiment at Walden Pond
  7. A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers
  8. Canada
  9. Walden
  10. Style
  11. Thoreau’s Significance
XI. Hawthorne
  By JOHN ERSKINE, Ph.D., Professor of English in Columbia University
  1. Hawthorne and Puritanism
  2. His Relations with the Transcendentalists
  3. The Facts of his Life
  4. Early Stories
  5. Later Romances
  6. His Close Observation of Life
  7. Transcendental Doctrines in Hawthorne: Self-Reliance; Compensation; Circles
XII. Longfellow
  By WILLIAM PETERFIELD TRENT, M.A., LL.D., Professor of English Literature in Columbia University
  1. Youthful Environment; Education
  2. Bowdoin
  3. Hyperion; Early Poems
  4. Harvard
  5. Ballads
  6. Dramatic Writings
  7. Evangeline
  8. Miles Standish
  9. Hiawatha
  10. Tales of a Wayside Inn
  11. Translations
  12. Sonnets
  13. Rank and Place
XIII. Whittier
  1. Quaker Ancestry and Nurture
  2. Early Poems
  3. Abolitionism
  4. Poems (1849)
  5. Later Honours
  6. Ballads
  7. Snow-Bound
  8. Anti-Slavery Poems
  9. Occasional Pieces
  10. Religious Feeling
  11. Prose
  12. Standing
XIV. Poe
  By KILLIS CAMPBELL, Ph.D., Professor of English in the University of Texas
  1. Youth
  2. Education
  3. Tamerlane and Other Poems
  4. West Point
  5. Baltimore
  6. The Southern Literary Messenger
  7. Philadelphia
  8. New York; The Raven; The Broadway Journal
  9. Later Misfortunes
  10. Character
  11. Poe as Critic
  12. His Creed and Practice of Poetry
  13. Tales
XV. Publicists and Orators, 1800–1850
  By A. C. MCLAUGHLIN, A.M., LL.D., Professor of History in the University of Chicago
  1. Theory and Practice
  2. Themes
  3. Oratorical Methods
  4. John Marshall
  5. His Importance
  6. His Great Opinions
  7. Marbury vs. Madison
  8. Cohens vs. Virginia
  9. McCulloch vs. Maryland; Dartmouth College vs. Woodward; Gibbons vs. Ogden
  10. Joseph Story: Commentaries on the Constitution
  11. James Kent: Commentaries on American Law; Conflict of Laws; Equity Jurisprudence
  12. Henry Wheaton: Elements of International Law
  13. John C. Calhoun
  14. The Chief Spokesman of the South
  15. Nullification
  16. The Constitutional Guarantees of Minority
  17. Defence of Slavery
  18. Style and Language
  19. Spencer Roane; John Taylor; Robert Y. Hayne
  20. John Randolph
  21. Powers of Invective
  22. Henry Clay; Gifts of Leadership
  23. His Nationalism
  24. John Quincy Adams
  25. The Old Man Eloquent
  26. Albert Gallatin; Roger Brooke Taney; Josiah Quincy; Edward Everett
  27. Thomas H. Benton; His Westernism
  28. Total Accomplishment of the Period
XVI. Webster
  By HENRY CABOT LODGE, Ph.D., LL.D., United States Senator from Massachusetts
  1. Webster not a Writer
  2. His Knowledge of Literature
  3. Literature and Oratory
  4. Webster’s Permanence
  5. The Plymouth Discourse
  6. Rhetoric and Literature
  7. Webster’s Developed Style
XVII. Writers on American History, 1783–1850
  By JOHN SPENCER BASSETT, Ph.D., LL.D., Professor of American History in Smith College
  1. Historians of the Revolution
  2. Gordon; Ramsay; Drayton; Moultrie; Marshall; Wirt
  3. Mrs. Warren; Weems; State Histories
  4. Belknap; Trumbull; Proud; Minot; H. M. Brackenridge; Ramsay; Burk; Williamson
  5. Status of Historical Studies
  6. General Histories of the United States
  7. Abiel Holmes
  8. Pitkin
  9. Hildreth
  10. Palfrey
  11. Tucker
  12. Bancroft
  13. Collectors of Materials
  14. Hazard
  15. Belknap
  16. Jedidiah Morse
  17. Sparks
  18. Force
XVIII. Prescott and Motley
  1. Youth
  2. Ill Health
  3. Self-training
  4. Choice of a Spanish Theme
  5. Ferdinand and Isabella
  6. Its Reception
  7. The Conquest of Mexico; The Conquest of Peru
  8. Philip II
  9. Style and Methods; His Aloofness from Current Affairs

  1. Youthful Energy
  2. Studies in Germany
  3. Novels
  4. St. Petersburg; Massachusetts Legislature
  5. The Rise of the Dutch Republic
  6. Its Reception and Influence
  7. Dutch and Belgian Critics
  8. The United Netherlands; Its Critics
  9. The Causes of the Civil War
  10. Vienna
  11. Resignation
  12. John of Barneveld; Court of St. James; Autobiographical Colouring in Motley’s Histories
  13. Sectarian Animosities
XIX. Early Humorists
  By WILL D. HOWE, Ph.D., Professor of English in Indiana University
  1. Two Forms of American Humour: Classical and Native
  2. Colonial Humorists
  3. Revolutionary Satirists
  4. The New Humour of the Thirties
  5. Seba Smith; “Jack Downing”; Haliburton
  6. David Crockett
  7. Longstreet; Georgia Scenes; W. T. Thompson; Hooper; Charles Henry Smith; “Bill Arp”; Bagby; Harris; Prentice
  8. Baldwin: The Flush Times of Alabama and Mississippi
  9. Mrs. Whitcher; “The Widow Bedott”; Cozzens; Goodrich; Wise; Thorpe; Hammett; McConnel
  10. Shillaber: “Mrs. Partington
  11. Halpine: “Miles O’Reilly”; Mortimer Thompson; Newell; “Orpheus C. Kerr
  12. Derby: “John Phœnix
  13. Shaw: “Josh Billings
  14. Locke: “Petroleum V. Nasby
  15. Browne: “Artemus Ward
XX. Magazines, Annuals, and Gift-books, 1783–1850
  By WILLIAM B. CAIRNS, Ph.D., Associate Professor of American Literature in the University of Wisconsin MAGAZINES
  1. Experiments before 1815
  2. Publishing Centres
  3. Salmagundi
  4. The Literary Magazine; The Port Folio
  5. The Monthly Anthology
  6. After the War of 1812
  7. South and West
  8. Types
  9. New England; The North American Review
  10. The Dial
  11. New York: The Knickerbocker Magazine; The Knickerbocker Gallery
  12. Philadelphia: Godey’s Lady’s Book; Graham’s Magazine
  13. The South: The Southern Literary Messenger
  14. The West

  1. Characteristics
  2. The Atlantic Souvenir
  3. Engravers; Cheney; Sartain; Ritchie
  4. The Token
  5. Religious Annuals
  6. The Talisman; The Boston Book; The Liberty Bell
  7. Miscellaneous
XXI. Newspapers, 1775–1860
  By FRANK W. SCOTT, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of English in the University of Illinois
  1. Revolutionary Newspapers
  2. The Pennsylvania Packet—the first daily Newspaper
  3. Development after the War
  4. The Farmers’ Museum
  5. Reporters Admitted to the Debates in Congress
  6. Partisan Bitterness; Administration Organs; The Gazette of the United States; The National Gazette
  7. Alien and Sedition Laws
  8. Spread of Newspapers
  9. The National Intelligencer (1808); The Globe; The United States Telegraph; The National Intelligencer (1841); Political Editors
  10. Personal Journalism; Thomas Ritchie; John M. Daniel
  11. New York: The Evening Post
  12. James Gordon Bennett—The Herald
  13. The Sun
  14. New York Associated Press
  15. Literary Weeklies: The Mirror
  16. The Telegraph
  17. Growth of Specialized Forms of Journalism; Anti-Slavery; The Liberator
  18. The Great Editors
  19. Samuel Bowles—The Springfield Republican
  20. Horace Greeley—The New York Tribune
  21. Henry Jarvis Raymond—The New York Times
XXII. Divines and Moralists, 1783–1860
  By SAMUEL LEE WOLFF, Ph.D., Instructor in English, Extension Teaching, Columbia University
  1. The Followers of Jonathan Edwards
  2. Relation between Divinity and Literature
  3. Samuel Hopkins
  4. Timothy Dwight
  5. Unitarianism
  6. The Buckminsters
  7. Andover Theological Seminary
  8. Princeton Theological Seminary
  9. Andrews Norton
  10. Opposition to Transcendentalism
  11. Furness
  12. Horace Bushnell
  13. Henry Ward Beecher
  14. Clerical College Presidents
  15. Mark Hopkins
XXIII. Writers of Familiar Verse
  By BRANDER MATTHEWS, D.C.L., Litt.D., LL.D., Professor of Dramatic Literature in Columbia University HOLMES
  1. Ancestry
  2. Education
  3. Medicine
  4. Professional Career
  5. Biographies of Motley and Emerson
  6. Novels
  7. Elsie Venner
  8. The Guardian Angel; A Mortal Antipathy
  9. The Breakfast-Table Series
  10. Serious Verse
  11. Occasional Pieces
  12. Lighter Lyrics

  1. Early Writers
  2. Lighter Verse of Serious Poets
  3. Saxe
  4. Eugene Field
  5. Bunner
XXIV. Lowell
  By ASHLEY H. THORNDIKE, Ph.D., L.H.D., Professor of English in Columbia University
  1. Miscellaneous Quality of Lowell’s Work
  2. Main Facts of his Life
  3. Early Poems
  4. Union of Art and Morality
  5. The Biglow Papers
  6. The Commemoration Ode
  7. Lowell as Critic
  8. The New England Village
  9. Later Doctrines
I. Whitman
  By EMORY HOLLOWAY, A.M., Assistant Professor of English in Adelphi College
  1. Difficulties in Whitman’s Biography
  2. Youth and Education
  3. Printer
  4. Teacher; Editor; Stump Speaker
  5. Early Writings
  6. New Orleans
  7. Leaves of Grass (1855)
  8. Its Reception
  9. Lectures
  10. New Friends
  11. The Civil War
  12. Drum-Taps; Democratic Vistas
  13. The Good Gray Poet
  14. Foreign Reputation
  15. Specimen Days and Collect; November Boughs
  16. Later Friends
  17. Influence of Whitman
II. Poets of the Civil War I
  1. The Mood of the North
  2. Effect upon the Poets
  3. H. H. Brownell
  4. Boker; Bayard Taylor; Read
  5. Melville; Halpine
  6. The Events of the Conflict Traced in Contemporary Poems; John Brown; Secession; The Call to Arms
  7. The Earliest Fighting in Virginia
  8. The War in the West; Willson
  9. The Cumberland and Merrimac; The Capture of New Orleans
  10. Emancipation
  11. Gettysburg
  12. Grant and His Career; Black Soldiers
  13. Sherman; The Fall of Richmond
  14. Songs of the Soldiers
  15. Civil Matters; Peace
  16. Lincoln
III. Poets of the Civil War II
  By EDWIN MIMS, Ph.D., Professor of English in Vanderbilt University
  1. Southern Poetry before the War
  2. Pinkney; Wilde
  3. The Outbreak of Hostilities
  4. Soldier Poets
  5. Dixie; The Bonnie Blue Flag
  6. Charleston and Its Poets; Simms
  7. Hayne
  8. Timrod; The Cotton Boll
  9. Ethnogenesis
  10. Randall: My Maryland
  11. Songs of the Soldiers
  12. Anthologies
  13. Frank Moore
  14. R. G. White
  15. War Songs and Lyrics of the South
  16. Emily V. Mason
  17. Simms
  18. Sallie A. Brock
  19. Davidson; Living Writers of the South
  20. F. F. Browne; Later Anthologies
  21. Value and Interest of these Poems
  22. The Events of the Conflict; The War in Virginia
  23. The West; The Mississippi
  24. The Death of Stonewall Jackson
  25. The Attack on Charleston
  26. Sherman’s March
  27. Peace; Resignation
  28. Ode Sung at Magnolia Cemetery
  29. The Poets after the War
IV. The New South: Lanier
  By DUDLEY MILES, Ph.D., Chairman of the Department of English in the Evander Childs High School, New York City
  1. Conditions of Literature during Reconstruction
  2. Susan Dabney Smedes
  3. Survivors of the Old School: Cooke; Bagby
  4. Johnston
  5. Jones
  6. Vance; Hill
  7. Gordon
  8. Lamar
  9. Curry
  10. The New South
  11. Grady
  12. Booker T. Washington
  13. The Poets
  14. Carlyle McKinley
  15. Tabb
  16. Boner
  17. Wilson
  18. Lanier; Youth and Education
  19. The Confederate Army
  20. Tiger Lilies
  21. Law
  22. Music
  23. The Peabody Orchestra
  24. Poems (1877)
  25. Johns Hopkins; Death
  26. Hackwork
  27. Critical Writings
  28. Shakespeare and His Forerunners
  29. The English Novel
  30. The Science of English Verse
  31. Letters
  32. Qualities of his Poetry
  33. Elaboration
  34. Music and Metrics
  35. Didacticism
  36. Idealism
  37. Ideas of Love and Nature
  38. Fidelity to his Section
  39. The Voice of the New South
V. Dialect Writers
  By C. ALPHONSO SMITH, Ph.D., LL.D., L. H. D., Head of the Department of English in the United States Naval Academy NEGRO DIALECT
  1. Joel Chandler Harris
  2. Facts of his Life
  3. Negro Writers; Douglass; Washington; DuBois; Dunbar
  4. The Negro in Earlier American Literature
  5. Uncle Tom’s Cabin
  6. Foster
  7. Russell
  8. Uncle Remus
  9. His Philosophy, Language, and Character
  10. Importance to Negro Folk lore
  11. The Negro Dialects in the United States: (1) Virginia; (2) Sea Islands; (3) Louisiana; (4) Inland or Uncle Remus Dialect

  1. Dialect and the Short Story
  2. General Uniformity of American Speech
  3. Western—a Composite
  4. New England: Its laws as Summarized by Lowell
  5. Southern: Its Rules
  6. The Possibility of a Compromise Dialect in the Middle West
VI. The Short Story
  By FRED LEWIS PATTEE, A.M., Litt.D., Professor of the English Language and Literature in the Pennsylvania State College
  1. Stages in the Development of the American Short Story
  2. Beginnings
  3. Irving
  4. The Annuals; Hawthorne
  5. Poe; Realism
  6. Rose Terry Cooke
  7. O’Brien
  8. Hale
  9. Henry James
  10. Bret Harte
  11. Local Colour
  12. Constance Fenimore Woolson
  13. Sarah Orne Jewett
  14. Cable
  15. The New Art
  16. Aldrich
  17. Stockton
  18. Bunner
  19. Bierce
  20. The Eighties
  21. Charles Egbert Craddock
  22. Joel Chandler Harris
  23. Johnston
  24. Garland; Mary E. Wilkins Freeman
  25. Kate Chopin
  26. The Latest Period
  27. Smith
  28. London
  29. Davis
  30. O. Henry
  31. Defects of the Type
VII. Books for Children
  By ALGERNON TASSIN, A.M., Assistant Professor of English in Columbia University
  1. Didacticism of the Early Attempts
  2. The Sunday School Books; Miss Sedgwick
  3. Miss Warner; Mrs. Finley; Mrs. Whitney
  4. Mrs. Child; The Youth’s Companion; Goodrich; Jacob Abbott
  5. Cooper; Irving; Dana; Mrs. Stowe; Hawthorne’s Juveniles; Increasing Dignity of Children’s Books; Our Young Folks; St. Nicholas
  6. Louisa M. Alcott; Mary Mapes Dodge; Hans Brinker
  7. Dime Novels; Writers for Boys; Kellogg; Goulding; Oliver Optic; Alger
  8. Later Books of Information
  9. Revolt against Information; Trowbridge; Kaler; Aldrich; Mark Twain
  10. Americanism in Books for Children
  11. Fanciful Tales; Stockton; Uncle Remus
  12. Poetry for Children; Moore; A Visit from St. Nicholas; Mary Had a Little Lamb; Field; Riley; Butterworth
  13. Merit of Contemporary Work in Juvenile Literature